EL EFECTO “COHETE-PLUMA” DEL PRECIO DE LOS CARBURANTES

¿Por qué los carburantes tardan tanto en bajar y tan poco en subir? Esto se produce por el efecto “cohete y pluma”

El efecto “cohete y pluma”, así es como lo denomina la propia Comisión Nacional de la Competencia (CNC) refiriéndose a que los precios de los carburantes suben como cohetes pero descienden con la lentitud de una pluma.

efecto_cohete_pluma_petroleo

 

La CNC que investiga el fenómeno, reconocía en 2012 esas asimetrías en la velocidad de ajuste de los precios. Existen un conjunto de motivos para explicarlo, que son:

El mercado de divisas: Las medidas puestas en marcha por el Banco Central Europeo (BCE) para reactivar la economía han tenido como efecto “secundario” el descenso de la moneda única europea, el euro. Como el mercado del petróleo  cotiza en dólares, la bajada del precio del barril es más pequeña al trasladarse el precio a euros.

– Impuestos: El 58% del precio de la gasolina son impuestos y, en el caso del gasóleo, los tributos representan el 49% de la factura final del consumidor en combustible. La carga fiscal deriva sobre todo del impuesto especial sobre hidrocarburos, que cuenta con un tipo general y uno especial.

– “Céntimo sanitario” por comunidades autónomas: En el año 2001, se establece el llamado “céntimo verde” o “céntimo sanitario”, que ni es un céntimo, ni es verde, ni se dedica a la sanidad. El céntimo sanitario es un impuesto sobre los carburantes aplicado por algunas Comunidades Autónomas, que nace para intentar dar solución al gasto del modelo español de sanidad pública.

El “céntimo sanitario” es la forma coloquial de llamarlo, ya que oficialmente se llama “Impuesto sobre las ventas minoristas de determinados hidrocarburos (IVMDH)”. Se ha convertido en el Tipo Autonómico (TA), que es uno de los tres tramos de impuestos de los que está compuesto el nuevo IEH, junto al Tipo Estatal General (TEG) y el Tipo Estatal especial, por lo tanto este impuesto encarece aun más el precio de los carburantes. Como podemos observar en la imagen que se muestra a continuación, Andalucía es una de las comunidades autónomas con el “céntimo sanitario” más  alto.                  

efecto-carburantes-españa

                                                                                              

– Costes de refinamiento: Un litro de gasolina no es lo mismo que un litro de crudo, hay unos costes del proceso de refinamiento y de transformación, que también hay que incluirlos.

– Márgenes de las petroleras: Hay que tener en cuenta los márgenes brutos promedio de imponen las petroleras, en este caso BP. El ‘superregulador’ señala que este margen incluye todos los costes asociados a la distribución del carburante, desde su origen (refinería o puerto de importación) hasta su destino (estación de servicio, centro de almacenamiento…), y la rentabilidad del operador mayorista y/o distribuidor minorista. Además, recoge otros costes derivados del cumplimiento de diversas obligaciones, como son el mantenimiento de existencias mínimas de seguridad, y la comercialización de biocarburantes con fines de transporte, entre otras.

– Retardo en la llegada del barril al mercado minorista: El barril que se compra hoy tarda en llegar al consumidor final una media de dos meses. Las petroleras sacan primero el stock de crudo que adquirieron hace unos meses a un precio mayor.

– Problemas de distribución del producto, los costes logísticos del transporte: España es el país más montañoso después de Suiza y eso tiene unos costes logísticos. Es complicado y más caro llevar el producto a determinadas zonas en las que las ventas son pequeñas y de difícil acceso.

Para más información sobre el precio de los carburantes y el efecto “cohete y pluma” consultar en  http://www.bp.com/es_es/spain.html

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